American, born France 1911.
Louise Bourgeois was born in Paris, and grew up working in her family’s tapestry restoration shop. She studied art at many schools in Paris before immigrating to the United States in 1938, continuing her studies at the Art Students League of New York. Over fifty years, Bourgeois has established herself as one of the twentieth century’s most accomplished and acclaimed sculptors, one of the few women of her generation to gain international attention. In her work, she has consistently experimented with a range of media (rubber, stone, bronze, wood, fabric) to symbolically explore themes of a personal nature—desire, loss, cruelty, memory, sexuality, and love. Bourgeois had her first individual exhibition in New York in 1945 (Bertha Schaefer Gallery), and since that time has had hundreds of one-person exhibitions. In 1982, the Museum of Modern Art, New York, organized a retrospective exhibition that traveled to venues throughout the United States, and in 1993, she represented the U.S. at the Venice Biennale. Bourgeois has been recognized with eight honorary doctoral awards, and in 1999 she received the Golden Lion award at the Venice Biennale.